First, go to your Applications folder in Finder. Go to Microsoft Outlook, and right-click on it to bring up the drop down menu, and choose Show Package Contents. 

In the folder that you see, navigate to Contents/SharedSupport and click on Outlook Profile Manager.
Double click Outlook Profile Manager to open it. This is an application where you can manage your profiles. You'll likely see a window with one profile in it, called Main Profile. Click that to make sure it is highlighted, and then click the "-" button in the lower left corner. You'll get a prompt asking if you want to Delete the main profile, click Delete. 

Now, you should see no profiles in Outlook Profile Manager. Click the "+" button in the lower left, and that will create a new one, likely with the default name Profile 1. You can leave that, or rename it to something different, like New Profile, it doesn't really matter much. Assuming there is only that profile in the list, you can now close out of Outlook Profile Manager. 

You can now launch Outlook. It will open up as if you had never used the program before, and you'll be prompted to add an email account. Just use your work email address and follow those prompts to go through and add the account. Once this is done, you'll be able to use Outlook, and it will download all of your email from the server (this may take hours depending on how many emails you have). If you had any shared mailboxes in your old Outlook profile, you'll need to add those to the new profile now (instructions here: Adding a Shared Mailbox in Outlook (Mac)

The final step, which you should do immediately, would be to empty your computer Trash. This will ensure that the old broken Profile is completely deleted from your machine ,freeing up space so that Outlook has room to download all of your emails from the server to the new Profile that you just created.